Wednesday, 27 February 2019

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Attitudes toward evidence-based interventions

Title of publication

Psychological flexibility and attitudes toward evidence-based interventions by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

Abstract 

Objective. Declining a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) by people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is often contrary to advice provided by health-care-professionals guided by evidence-based principles. This study proposes relational frame theory (RFT) to offer a viable explanation of this phenomenon.

Design. A total of 35 people (14 female, 21 male) aged between 34 and 73 years, with ALS, participated in this cross-sectional research.

Main outcome measures. This research examined the predictive power and interaction effect of psychological flexibility (the fundamental construct of RFT) and psychological well-being on attitudes toward intervention options.

Results. Participants with high psychological flexibility reported lower depression, anxiety, and stress, and higher quality of life. In addition, psychological flexibility was predictive of a participant’s understanding and acceptance of a PEG as an intervention option. Psychological flexibility was not found to be a significant predictor of understanding and acceptance of NIV.

Conclusion. Although the criterion measure had not been piloted or validated outside of the current study and asks about expected rather than actual acceptance, findings suggest that applied RFT may be helpful for clients with ALS.

Cite

Pearlman, J. R., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2019). Psychological flexibility and attitudes toward evidence-based interventions by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. PeerJ, 7, e6527. doi:10.7717/peerj.6527

Link

https://peerj.com/articles/6527/

Alcohol use in Bhutan: Parenting style and distress

Title of publication

Parenting style, distress, and problematic alcohol use in Bhutan

Abstract 

Background: Bhutan is a small landlocked country located between India and China that is largely rural and Buddhist. As the nation develops and adopts more Western practices, the nature of the relationship between its young people and alcohol is developing as well.

Objectives: The present study examines how problematic alcohol use relates to parenting styles and distress factors in a sample of predominantly tertiary students.

Methods: For this study, 245 young adults completed self-report measures of parenting style, distress, and alcohol-related problems.

Results: Strong correlations were found indicating more dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with greater distress and problematic alcohol use. Further analyses to evaluate the relationship between parenting styles and alcohol use found no role for moderation but a significant effect for mediation which indicated that more dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with greater distress which in turn was associated with greater problematic alcohol use.

Conclusions: These findings replicate those found in Western countries and imply that the same vulnerabilities to problematic alcohol use are also present in Bhutan.

Cite

Penjor, S., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Price, I., & Loi, N. M. (2019). Parenting style, distress, and problematic alcohol use in Bhutan. Cogent Psychology, 6, 1-10. doi:10.1080/23311908.2019.1579503

Link

https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2019.1579503
https://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/23311908.2019.1579503

Wednesday, 14 November 2018

Postpartum depression: Stigma and help-seeking

Title of publication

Changes in stigma and help-seeking in relation to postpartum depression: Non-clinical parenting intervention sample

Abstract 

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent mental illness affecting women, and less commonly, men in the weeks and months after giving birth. Despite the high incidence of PPD in Australia, rates for help-seeking remain low, with stigma and discrimination frequently cited as the most common deterrents to seeking help from a professional source. The present study sought to investigate PPD stigma in a sample of parents and to examine the effects of an intervention on stigma and help-seeking behaviour. A total of 212 parents aged 18–71 years (M = 36.88, 194 females) completed measures of personal and perceived PPD stigma and attitudes towards seeking mental health services and were randomly assigned to one of four groups: an intervention group (video documentary or factsheet related to PPD) or a control group (video documentary or factsheet not related to PPD). Results showed that there were no effects for type of intervention on either personal or perceived PPD stigma scores. No effect was found for help-seeking propensity. Males had higher personal PPD stigma than females and older age was associated with lower personal PPD stigma. Familiarity with PPD was associated with perceived PPD stigma in others but not personal PPD stigma. More work needs to be conducted to develop interventions to reduce PPD stigma in the community.

Cite

Thorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N. M., & Farr, K. (2018). Changes in stigma and help-seeking in relation to postpartum depression: Non-clinical parenting intervention sample. PeerJ, 6, e5893. doi:10.7717/peerj.5893

Link

https://peerj.com/articles/5893/

Friday, 12 January 2018

Model fit and comparisons for the MACS

Title of publication

Model fit and comparisons for the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS): Fiji, Iceland, and Australia

Abstract 

A two-dimensional theory of adolescent coping with cross-cultural and cross-Human Development Index Categories (HDI) application was tested: the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS). The MACS was answered by 809 adolescents of diverse origins from different parts of Fiji and compared with findings from Australia and Iceland. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results showed the MACS to have a reliable factorial and dimensional structure in Fiji. Differences between girls and boys were similar in Fiji, Australia, and Iceland. Stoicism/distraction was identical for boys and girls in all countries. There were no differences comparing mother tongue (Fijian and Hindi). The two-dimensional theory of adolescent coping was supported.

Cite

Sveinbjornsdottir, S., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & Lingam, G. I. (2017). Model fit and comparisons for the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS): Fiji, Iceland, and Australia. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 11. doi:10.1017/prp.2017.20

Link

https://doi.org/10.1017/prp.2017.20

Friday, 8 December 2017

Body temperature dysregulation

Title of publication

Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle?

Abstract 

Purpose. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena. Nor is there a clinical theory with any utility in explaining the development of co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour and the mechanism(s) by which they occur. Thus, we propose a specific mechanism—dysregulation of core body temperature (CBT) that interferes with sleep onset—to explain the development of the concurrences.

Methods. A detailed review of the literature related to CBT and the phenomena that can alter CBT or are altered by CBT is provided.

Results. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance and certain behaviour (e.g. late-night eating, sedentarism) were linked to elevated CBT, especially an elevated nocturnal CBT. A number of existing therapies including drugs (e.g. antidepressants), behavioural therapies (e.g. sleep restriction therapy) and bright light therapy can also reduce CBT.

Conclusions. An elevation in nocturnal CBT that interferes with sleep onset can parsimoniously explain the development and perpetuation of common co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour including overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, late-night eating, and sedentarism. Nonetheless, a significant correlation between CBT and the above symptoms, disorders and behaviour does not necessarily imply causation. Thus, statistical and methodological issues of relevance to this enquiry are discussed including the likely presence of autocorrelation.

Cite

Brown, R. F., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Smithson, M., Birmingham, C. L., Aljarallah, H., & Nolan, C. (2017). Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle? Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22, 599-608. doi:10.1007/s40519-017-0439-0

Link

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-017-0439-0

Thursday, 9 November 2017

Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents

Title of publication

Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014

Abstract 

Background: Minority sexual orientation may add additional stresses to the period of adolescence thus affecting mental health and wellbeing.

Method: The whole population of year 10 students in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in Iceland were surveyed as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. About 3.1%, 3.6%, and 4.4% were identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) in 2006, 2010, and 2014, respectively. Given the sampling proportions, the results reflect parameters (population values) rather than statistics (sample values).

Results: LGB adolescents were worse off across most of the outcome variables across the three surveys as compared with adolescents of unknown sexual orientation (USO). However, the gap between LGB and USO adolescents appears to be closing, at least for the 2010 to 2014 change, suggesting that outcomes for LGB adolescents have improved compared to four years earlier. Social support, liking school and one’s classmates, being bullied, and physical and mental health all seem to play an important part in life satisfaction and general wellbeing.

Conclusion: While advances have been made for LGB adolescents, gaps between LGB and USO adolescents still exist and need to be closed through evidence-based school and society-wide programs.

Cite

Thorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N., Sveinbjornsdottir, S., & Arnarsson, A. (2017). Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58, 530-540. doi:10.1111/sjop.12402

Link

http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12402 

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

Title of publication

Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

Abstract 

Objectives. To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes.

Method. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n = 63) and mothers of children without diabetes (n = 114). The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life.

Results. Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain).

Conclusion. In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.

Cite

Thorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N. M., & Rayner, K. (2017). Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes. PeerJ, 5, e3961. doi:10.7717/peerj.3961

Link

https://peerj.com/articles/3961/?td=bl

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Attitudes toward evidence-based interventions

Title of publication Psychological flexibility and attitudes toward evidence-based interventions by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patien...