Friday, 12 January 2018
Friday, 8 December 2017
Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle?
AbstractPurpose. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena. Nor is there a clinical theory with any utility in explaining the development of co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour and the mechanism(s) by which they occur. Thus, we propose a specific mechanism—dysregulation of core body temperature (CBT) that interferes with sleep onset—to explain the development of the concurrences.
Methods. A detailed review of the literature related to CBT and the phenomena that can alter CBT or are altered by CBT is provided.
Results. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance and certain behaviour (e.g. late-night eating, sedentarism) were linked to elevated CBT, especially an elevated nocturnal CBT. A number of existing therapies including drugs (e.g. antidepressants), behavioural therapies (e.g. sleep restriction therapy) and bright light therapy can also reduce CBT.
Conclusions. An elevation in nocturnal CBT that interferes with sleep onset can parsimoniously explain the development and perpetuation of common co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour including overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, late-night eating, and sedentarism. Nonetheless, a significant correlation between CBT and the above symptoms, disorders and behaviour does not necessarily imply causation. Thus, statistical and methodological issues of relevance to this enquiry are discussed including the likely presence of autocorrelation.
CiteBrown, R. F., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Smithson, M., Birmingham, C. L., Aljarallah, H., & Nolan, C. (2017). Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle? Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22, 599-608. doi:10.1007/s40519-017-0439-0
Thursday, 9 November 2017
Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014
AbstractBackground: Minority sexual orientation may add additional stresses to the period of adolescence thus affecting mental health and wellbeing.
Method: The whole population of year 10 students in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in Iceland were surveyed as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. About 3.1%, 3.6%, and 4.4% were identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) in 2006, 2010, and 2014, respectively. Given the sampling proportions, the results reflect parameters (population values) rather than statistics (sample values).
Results: LGB adolescents were worse off across most of the outcome variables across the three surveys as compared with adolescents of unknown sexual orientation (USO). However, the gap between LGB and USO adolescents appears to be closing, at least for the 2010 to 2014 change, suggesting that outcomes for LGB adolescents have improved compared to four years earlier. Social support, liking school and one’s classmates, being bullied, and physical and mental health all seem to play an important part in life satisfaction and general wellbeing.
Conclusion: While advances have been made for LGB adolescents, gaps between LGB and USO adolescents still exist and need to be closed through evidence-based school and society-wide programs.
CiteThorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N., Sveinbjornsdottir, S., & Arnarsson, A. (2017). Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58, 530-540. doi:10.1111/sjop.12402
Tuesday, 24 October 2017
Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes
AbstractObjectives. To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes.
Method. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n = 63) and mothers of children without diabetes (n = 114). The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life.
Results. Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain).
Conclusion. In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.
CiteThorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N. M., & Rayner, K. (2017). Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes. PeerJ, 5, e3961. doi:10.7717/peerj.3961
Friday, 9 June 2017
TitlePerfect imperfections: Locus of control, perfectionism and postpartum depression
AbstractWe examined whether locus of control (LOC) moderates the apparent relationship between perfectionism and postpartum depression (PPD). It was predicted that external LOC would moderate the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and PPD, and socially prescribed perfectionism and PPD. A sample of 243 women completed an online self-report questionnaire assessing perfectionism, LOC, and PPD. Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were significantly associated with PPD. Increased personal loci of control (i.e., low external LOC and high internal LOC) moderated (strengthened) the relationship between perfectionism and PPD. LOC may be an important concept and one of the underlying factors at work in the perfectionism–PPD relationship. This outcome may be attributed to the self-directed nature of self-oriented perfectionists.
CiteJackman, L., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & McNeil, D. (2017). Perfect imperfections: Locus of control, perfectionism and postpartum depression. SAGE Open, 7, 1-8. doi:10.1177/2158244017710689
Wednesday, 17 May 2017
TitleInternet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses among adolescents and adults
AbstractAs Internet use grows so do the benefits and also the risks. Thus, it is important to identify when individuals’ Internet use is problematic. In the present study 449 participants aged from 16 to 71 years of age were sourced from a wide range of English speaking Internet forums including social media, and self-help groups. Of these, 68.9% were classified as non-problematic users, 24.4% as problematic users, and 6.7% as addictive Internet users. High use of discussion forums, high rumination levels, and low levels of self-care were the main contributing factors to Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents. For adults, though, IA was mainly predicted through engagement in online video gaming and sexual activity, low email use, as well as high anxiety and high avoidant coping. Problematic Internet users scored higher on emotion and avoidance coping responses in adults and higher on rumination and lower on self-care in adolescents. Avoidance coping responses mediated the relationship between psychological distress and Internet addiction. These findings may assist clinicians with designing interventions to target different factors associated with Internet addiction.
CiteMcNicol, M. L., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2017). Internet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses among adolescents and adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20, 296-304. doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0669
Neighborhood predictors of life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in rural and urban groups: Implications for health policy and practice
This research investigates the extent to which satisfaction with thirteen aspects of neighborhood predicts the life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing (SWB) of rural (n = 408) and urban (n = 1,690) groups as measured by the seven life domains of the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) using Australian data. Open space and sharing and borrowing between neighbors were found to predict life domain satisfaction for rural respondents but not urban respondents. On the other hand, leisure facilities predict domain satisfaction for urban but not rural respondents, while trust between neighbors predicts a greater number of domains for urban respondents. Greater awareness of neighborhood predictors unique to rural or urban groups could help target public health policy aimed at maintaining SWB is these populations.
Kennedy, W., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2017). Neighborhood predictors of life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in rural and urban groups: Implications for health policy and practice. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, 7, 83-97.
Title Model fit and comparisons for the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS): Fiji, Iceland, and Australia Abstract A two...
Title Internet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses among adolescents and adults Abstract As Internet use grows so ...
Title Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 d...
Title Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014 Abstract Ba...